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The advantages and reference of the teaching model of foreig

Author: Time:2018-01-23 16:36 Source:未知
In this paper:知识经济时代,世界各国都在重视和加强培养具有创新素质的人才。研究型大学由于具有良好的师资队伍、先进的科研条件和宽松活跃的学术氛围,因此,在创新人才培养方面有其独特...

In the era of knowledge economy, all countries in the world pay attention to and strengthen the cultivation of talents with innovative qualities. The research university has its unique advantages in the cultivation of innovative talents because of its excellent faculty, advanced scientific research conditions and relaxed and active academic atmosphere. We are from the aspects of teaching mode, teaching content, teaching evaluation, mainly analyzes the United States, Britain and Germany a few high level research universities in the developed countries the characteristics and advantages in the talents training mode, purport to be used for reference in research universities cultivate innovative talents in our country.
 
 
First, in teaching mode, focus on discussion and research.
 
 
In order to adapt to the needs of innovative talents training, national research universities are creating new teaching models which are conducive to the cultivation of innovative talents. In 1998, the United States, boyer research university undergraduate education commission issued a "reconstruction of undergraduate education: American research universities development blueprint" study, specifically their exploration is unique only research universities a new undergraduate teaching mode: undergraduate students to benefit from the postgraduate education system unique resources; Research universities give students the breadth of experience and ability that other education institutions cannot provide, a truly valuable research experience that gives graduates special creativity. The report specifically proposes that "research-based learning" should be the standard, and that each person should be a learner, a discoverer, and a researcher. Is the basic concept of this teaching mode, stress and require students to actively participate in the teaching process, emphasizes the study is based on the teacher found that, under the guidance of emphasizing the students' practice and subjective initiative of the play, pay attention to the cultivation of students' innovative spirit and ability. In fact, this is what we call the basic idea of research-based teaching. Under this concept, the specific teaching mode is flexible and varied, such as heuristic teaching method, case teaching method, seminar method, discovery method, problem teaching method and research learning. In various forms of teaching, students are emphasized and required to participate in the teaching process, rather than passive listening. Among them, it is the two most prominent characteristics of the reform of teaching mode of foreign research universities.
 
First, focus on the seminar. The Seminar is one of the most important forms of teaching in German universities. Now the seminar is also very popular in the classroom teaching of research universities in other countries. Research universities in the United States generally have seminars from the first year of undergraduate study, and more seminars have been opened in recent years. For example, from 2008 to 2009 Princeton university opened 74 seminars for freshmen, each opening to all freshmen, and students were able to choose between departments. In the fall of 2008, harvard opened 135 seminars for students. Some of these for freshman seminar with the nature of the "introduction", but not many of our teachers to understand the kind of emphasis on knowledge of systematic and comprehensive introduction to "class", but stressed that "guide", stimulate students interest in the subject, emphasizes the lines and achieve mastery through a comprehensive study of knowledge, causes the student to accept specific training in scientific research methods, thus has considerable depth. In addition, American universities offer a variety of interdisciplinary and comprehensive symposiums, hosted by experienced teachers. The students according to their own interest for elementary, students in the small (typically limited to 10 people) in the workshop, with teachers from the perspectives of different disciplines to explore the hot issues of exciting, around the theme to consult the rich knowledge of literature, to carry out cooperative learning group, communicate in lively discussion, write academic papers and reports. This kind of seminar is more difficult, but this kind of interdisciplinary learning experience is particularly conducive to the cultivation of students' spirit of inquiry.
 
The seminar is also a kind of teaching model which is often used in English research universities. Among them, the tutorial system is the characteristic of the famous university teaching model. The discussion and communication between teachers and students is the basic form of tutor teaching. Tutors are initially taught one-to-one by tutors and students. As a result of the expansion of the student scale, now the tutor is teaching more than two students together, even 3 ~ 4 people. The core purpose of tutor teaching is to cultivate students' ability to explore knowledge and independent thinking. Therefore, teacher is not the message, don't care how much knowledge students or give him how much information, but to cultivate their independent learning, thinking, working skills and critical skills, be full of wisdom and reason. For example, the university of Oxford has invested a great deal of resources in the tutorial system. In all 24 weeks of a school year, liberal arts instructors teach 12 hours a week, and science teaching is 6 hours a week, which is far more expensive than other college teachers. In addition, academics at Oxford must teach in a wider range of areas than other universities. In order to guarantee the teaching quality of the college, the college strictly decides the enrollment number according to the proportion of the students. In the 1980s, tutors were generally responsible for 6 to 12 students, and by the mid-1990s, a mentor was responsible for about 20 undergraduates.
 
Second, focus on research learning. Students are under the guidance of teachers, in a similar scientific research way to obtain information or application knowledge, problem solving, inquiry learning for cultivating students' innovation spirit and innovation ability, has the vital role. Therefore, many foreign research universities have established undergraduate research programs, so that students' active participation in scientific research activities has become an important feature of the innovative talent teaching mode.
 
The United States is one of the most extensive and perfect systems for undergraduate research. In order to guarantee the development of undergraduate research, the American research university attaches great importance to the leadership and organization management of undergraduate research, and generally establishes the undergraduate scientific research management institution at the school level. For example, Stanford university and uc Berkeley established the undergraduate research office in 1994 and 1997 to organize and provide services for undergraduate research. There are two kinds of research programs for undergraduate students in the research universities, which are generally divided into two kinds. One is that students participate as apprentices in the research projects, which are mainly teachers, and serve as research assistants in them. Second, the students proposed the project plan by themselves, including research projects, creative design work and public service projects, and students applied for research funds to the school. From the funding sources of undergraduate research projects, there are research projects funded by departments or schools, as well as research projects funded by various external organizations. Stanford university, for example, provided $4 million in grants to 1,200 undergraduates between 2006 and 2007. Students need to participate in every stage of standard scientific research, including writing research applications and plans, conducting research, analyzing data and presenting results in both oral and written form. Research projects can be completed in one semester, but most will take more than one academic year. American universities generally incorporate undergraduate research into the curriculum, and students who participate in research programs can earn academic credits as part of their total credits. In order to better carry out undergraduate scientific research plan and can obtain good effect, the school also equipped with a mentor to undergraduates, and to encourage undergraduate scientific research under the guidance of teachers, for teachers to guide undergraduate research, the university on the funds, job evaluation be tilted. Berkeley, for example, says that under the undergraduate program, a teacher instructs an undergraduate and the school grants $500. Some schools also set up the most outstanding teaching achievement award, which can help teachers enhance their competitiveness. In the course of teachers' engagement and promotion, the Massachusetts institute of technology considers projects such as mentoring programs as part of the teaching task. In order to encourage undergraduate students to participate in scientific research, of the university of Pennsylvania, undergraduate academic research projects in addition to providing scientific research itself cost, to provide room and board for a summer job or travel.
 
 
Ii. Teaching content, focusing on the fusion of teaching and research, the integration of education and professional education.
 
 
Scientific research is an important function of research universities, and the integration of teaching and research is an obvious feature of research universities. The German university opens the first educator Humboldt proposed and implemented for the first time in Berlin university in the combination of teaching and scientific research, scientific research as an important means of training "has the tutelage of man". He believes that only the research results obtained by teachers in creative activities can be taught as knowledge, and only this kind of teaching can truly be called the university level. German university to form the creative research model is recognized as the 19th century not only one of the most successful paradigm of "production" professional scientists, but also for the United States and other world had a profound impact on the development of research universities. In today's world of research universities, scientific research has become an important function. Teachers should actively participate in scientific research activities so that they can bring the latest achievements of scientific research into teaching and bring them to students. This is unmatched by other non-research universities. In the teaching process, teachers will creative scientific research work is introduced into the teaching process, students have access to the latest achievements in the academic field or the latest problem, not only to teach students the latest knowledge, but also guide the student to understand those unsolved problems, inspire students to think about, so that the students' creative thinking ability, make students learn to use scientific methods to think and solve problems, but also make the students understand the process of scientific research, master the scientific research method. Princeton university is also a model for the integration of teachers' research and teaching. Teachers pass the latest research results to students through classroom teaching and independent tutoring. It is an important feature of the teaching model of high level research university. In order to reverse the research universities' scientific research, teaching, many research universities in the United States has adopted a series of important measures, one of the most important one is to encourage professors on the platform, introduce junior student discipline frontier dynamic and development direction.
 
Compared with other western universities, British universities have established a deep-rooted tradition of education in teaching, so scientific research started late in British universities, but the results were impressive. There are more than 100 Nobel prizes in Britain, ranking the world's largest by population, second only to the United States. Nowadays, famous universities in Britain attach great importance to scientific research and attach importance to the combination of research and teaching. At the university of Cambridge is the most powerful scientific research strength, the research is also the most, but always attaches great importance to the teaching job at Cambridge university, emphasize the balance of scientific research and teaching, emphasize to cultivate talent. At the university of Cambridge asked each teacher to do science research, and to ensure the high levels of certain amount of class teaching, at the same time requires teachers to their own scientific research professor and cutting-edge knowledge to students, constantly updating the teaching contents, to scientific research to promote teaching. Under the condition that the research level is at the forefront, the school has a complete set of teaching quality assurance system, which achieves the coordinated development of academic research and teaching work.
 
To realize the balance of education and education is another important characteristic and trend of research universities. Higher education is a kind of professional education, but as science, technology and production integration, research university in the undergraduate curriculum pays more attention to basic subject, pay attention to the cross culture, science, engineering and penetration, pay attention to and strengthen the foundational courses and extensive, reduce the specialized education for junior student. The American research universities teaching ideas just don't expect to make the students master as much professional knowledge, but rather to make the students obtain the basic knowledge needed to lifelong education itself, the "Less is more" (Less is more) this is the basic principle of philosophy into the undergraduate curriculum setting. The tradition of free education has a long history. For this reason, the British famous research university courses and professional setting is always: emphasize the internality of education goal, the value of the pursuit of knowledge itself, against education external utilitarian purpose, attaches great importance to the academic. Courses in UK universities, which focus on education for basic courses, are against the practice of too early and narrow specialization training. Undergraduate students at the university of Cambridge, for example, one of the most prominent feature of the curriculum, students can be in the first or second year, to register in a wide range of subject areas, to make the students lay a broad knowledge base, and after the second year, students can according to own hobby, design or choose professional discipline to study. German university courses are divided into two stages, namely, the basic and professional stages. From the curriculum of the philosophy department of the university of Berlin, the course content includes not only the knowledge of humanities and social sciences, but also the subjects of natural science. These courses cover almost all the advanced knowledge of division, medicine, god and other specialized courses, and the curriculum is very basic, intersecting and extensive.
Third, in the evaluation system, the attention to the teacher comprehensive evaluation and the student's ability evaluation.
 
 
In the teacher evaluation system, attention to teacher's comprehensive evaluation. Research universities undertake the functions of teaching, scientific research and social services. Therefore, the teacher assessment system of research universities emphasizes the important role of teachers in teaching, academic and creative research and service work. Hope teachers support each other in these three areas to maintain continuity and high level, will be a fair assessment system of teachers, fair and transparent as an integral part of school management structure. Scientific research is an important function of research universities, so it is more important to evaluate teachers' achievements than other non-research universities. However, in the evaluation system, the weight of teaching is still the largest. Generally, the weight of the evaluation of teachers' teaching, scientific research and social service is 50%, 30% and 20% respectively. It can also be explained that teaching is still the most important work in research universities. Such evaluation standard itself is to strengthen the teaching work of the school, to overcome and avoid the tendency of only heavy scientific research has the obvious guiding effect. In addition, some schools make policies to encourage teachers to devote themselves to teaching. For example, Cornell university and others have established "excellent teaching award" to encourage more well-known professors to engage in teaching work, especially on the stage of undergraduate teaching.
 
Traditionally, German universities regard scientific research as the highest duty of scholars. At present, scientific capital still plays a decisive role in the development of German university teachers in their profession, and its capital value is much higher than that of teaching capital. Therefore, German university teachers tend to acquire and accumulate scientific capital, and put teaching capital in a relatively minor position. However, the results of teachers' teaching evaluation are also one of the most important factors affecting teachers' position, promotion and salary. Systematic and comprehensive evaluation of teachers in German universities has formed a system. To apply for university teachers and promote the title of the teaching assessment assessment work must solicit the opinions of the students, or before the end of each semester. Each course requires students to course teaching and teachers' teaching work evaluation, so as to further improve teaching to provide feedback or used as the basis for personnel decisions. British university teachers have three levels: lecturers, senior lecturers and professors. From the instructor to senior lecturer easier, from senior lecturer, professor to the demand is higher, especially in the research, to see how many publications, how many students are, how research funding, if some members of the academic committee. At the same time, the teaching level of teachers also has high requirements. For example, according to the Cambridge regulations, teachers who are hired continuously need good grades as a condition. Second, all professors, senior lecturers, lecturers and assistant lecturers have statutory responsibilities for the university's basic education. Even the most famous royal professors and Nobel laureates in Oxford and Cambridge are required to teach undergraduates.
 
In the student appraisal system, the attention to the student comprehensive ability evaluation. The assessment of an American college is not always a test paper. During the whole semester, the general course will be evaluated 2-3 times. There are few rote memorization in the exam, and the necessary formulas and calculation constants can be provided during the examination. Although the quantity is not much, but the characteristic is bright, has the strong flexibility, the comprehensiveness and the practicality. The assessment usually involves a certain number of application problems, which requires students to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to solve some practical problems. Appraisal way diversification, for example, lets the student compose the thesis combined with the teaching content and the research project, often as part of the curriculum assessment, including the application of knowledge ability and innovation ability evaluation is very important. Yale university, for example, claims that don't give students specific content in the teaching, the topic of a lot of test paper also does not have the only right answer, its purpose lies in cultivating students' independent thinking, critical thinking, analysis, problem from a different perspective and innovative ability.
 
British universities judge students' academic performance according to their professional ability and innovative ability. The method of assessment is varied, and the method of assessment is "group work" and "individual homework". The group work is usually done by 3 ~ 5 people. Each group's topic is different, and the group members should discuss it regularly. After the group study, it may be necessary to design or write a small paper (some case analysis), and the number of words is about 3000 words. After that, the division divides the main content into the proper form (using PowerPoint), and the members and teachers of other groups ask questions about the content. Group assignments typically account for 40 percent of a person's overall grade. As for individual assignments or exams, students in science and engineering tend to do design, while liberal arts students tend to do case studies or write essays. Individual assignments or exams generally account for 60% of your overall grade. In addition, the student will write a graduation thesis after completing the course. The thesis is generally assessed by the tutor and a tutor selected by the tutor. The teacher gives the test paper, which is reviewed by the experts outside the school, to ensure the difficulty of the examination paper, and to ensure that the examination level of each university is roughly the same. German universities are rigorous and difficult, but with some flexibility. There are a lot of discussion sections in universities, and there is no need to close the exam. At the end of the term, the teacher will assess the performance according to the outline of the speech and the performance of the speech. This assessment form to highlight is the student in a lot of reading, on the basis of the analysis of the problems with thinking, the cultivation of comprehensive ability, on the one hand, assessment of the student to the basic knowledge, on the other hand also examined in the oral expression ability and thinking ability of students.
知识经济时代,世界各国都在重视和加强培养具有创新素质的人才。研究型大学由于具有良好的师资队伍、先进的科研条件和宽松活跃的学术氛围,因此,在创新人才培养方面有其独特的优势。我们从教学模式、教学内容、教学评价方面,主要分析了美国、英国和德国几个发达国家高水平研究型大学在人才培养模式上的特点与优势,旨为我国研究型大学培养创新人才起到借鉴作用。
 
  一、在教学模式上,注重讨论式、研究性学习
 
  为了适应创新人才培养的需要,各国研究型大学都在创建有利于创新人才培养的教学新模式。1998年,美国博耶研究型大学本科生教育委员会发表了《重建本科生教育:美国研究型大学发展蓝图》的研究报告,明确提出他们探索的是只有研究型大学才具有的一种全新的本科教学模式:本科生要得益于研究生教育体系独一无二的资源;研究型大学要给予学生其它教育机构所不能提供的广泛经验和能力,一种真正有价值的研究经历,使毕业生具有特别的创造力。报告特别提出应使“研究为本的学习”成为标准,大学里的教师、研究者、学生每个人都应是一个学习者、发现者、研究者。这种教学模式的基本理念是,强调和要求学生主动参与教学过程,强调学习是基于导师指导下的发现,强调学生的亲身实践和主观能动性的发挥,注重学生创新精神与能力的培养。实际上这就是我们通常所说的研究性教学的基本理念。在这一理念之下,其具体教学模式灵活多样,如启发式讲授法、案例教学法、研讨法、发现法、问题教学法和研究性学习等。在各种形式的教学中,都强调和要求学生主动参与教学过程,而不是被动听课。其中,重视研讨法和研究性学习(本科生参加科研)是国外研究型大学教学模式改革中两个最为显著的特点。
  第一,重视研讨课程。大学研讨课(Seminar)最早是柏林大学为了引导和训练学术创造的一种全新的教学形式,讨论课仍然是当今德国大学主要的教学形式之一。现在研讨课在其它各国研究型大学的课堂教学中也非常盛行。美国的研究型大学一般从本科一年级开始就开设了研讨课,近年来为低年级开设了更多的研讨课。例如,2008~2009年度普林斯顿大学就为新生开设了74门研讨课,每门研讨课向所有的新生开放,而且学生可以跨院系选学。2008年秋季哈佛大学为学生开设了135门研讨课。这些针对新生的研讨课有的带有“导论”性质,但并不是我们许多教师理解的那种强调知识的系统和全面的“概论课”,而是强调“引导”,激发学生对学科的兴趣,强调举一反三和知识的融会贯通,使学生接受特定的科学研究方法训练,因而具有相当的深度。此外,美国大学为新生还开设了各种跨学科综合性的专题学术研讨课程,由有经验的教师主持。学生们依照自己的兴趣报名选学,学生在规模很小(一般限定为10余人)的研讨班中,和教师一起从不同学科视角探究令人兴奋的热门问题,围绕主题查阅相关的富有见识的文献资料,开展小组合作学习,组织充满活力的讨论交流,撰写学术论文和报告。这种研讨课程难度更大,但是这种跨学科的学习体验特别有利于学生探究精神的培养。
  研讨课也是英国研究型大学课堂上经常采用的一种教学模式。其中,导师制教学是英国著名大学教学模式的特色。师生间的讨论和交流是导师教学的基本形式。导师教学最初都是由导师和学生一对一地进行的。由于学生规模的扩大,现在导师教学更多的是两个学生一起上课,甚至是3~4人。导师教学的核心目的是培养学生探究知识、独立思考的能力。因此,导师不是信息传递者,并不在意教授学生多少知识或是给他多少信息,而在于培养他们独立学习、思考、工作的技能和批评的技能,成为充满智慧和理性的人。例如,牛津大学为导师制教学投入大量的资源。在全部24周的一个学年中,文科导师每周教学12个小时,理科教学每周6个小时,这种教学负担远大于其他大学中的教师。此外,牛津大学中担任导师的学者必须在比其它大学要求更为广泛的领域中进行教学。为了保证学院的教学质量,学院严格按照导师指导学生的比例决定招生人数。20世纪80年代,导师一般负责6~12名学生,而到90年代中期,一名导师负责约20名本科生。
  第二,重视研究性学习。学生在教师指导下,以类似科学研究的方式去获取信息或应用知识、解决问题,研究性学习对于培养学生的创新精神和创新能力,具有重要的作用。因此,国外许多研究型大学均设立了本科生科研计划,让学生积极主动地参与科研活动,已经成为创新人才教学模式的一个重要特征。
  美国是本科生开展科研活动的最广泛、制度最完善的国家之一。为了保证本科生科研的开展,美国研究型大学非常重视本科生科研的领导与组织管理工作,一般都在学校一级成立本科生科研管理机构。例如,斯坦福大学、加州伯克利分校分别于1994、1997年专门成立了本科生研究办公室,以对本科生科研进行组织并提供服务。研究型大学本科生科研项目多种多样,一般分为两种,一是学生作为学徒参与以教师为主的科研项目,在其中担任研究助理;二是由学生自己提出项目方案,包括研究性项目、创造性设计工作以及公众服务性项目,学生向学校提出研究资金申请。从本科生科研项目的资助来源看,既有院系或者学校提供资助的研究项目,也有校外各种组织提供资助的研究项目。例如斯坦福大学在2006~2007年度就为1200名本科生提供了400万美元的项目资助。学生需要参与标准科学研究的每一个阶段,包括撰写研究申请和计划、实施研究、分析数据和以口头及书面形式呈现研究结果。研究项目可以在一个学期完成,但是多数要进行一个学年以上。美国大学一般都把本科生科研纳入课程计划,参加科研项目的学生可以获得学术学分,成为总学分的一部分。为了更好地贯彻本科生科研计划并能取得良好的效果,学校给本科生也配备导师,而且为了鼓励教师指导本科生科研,对于指导本科生科研的教师,大学在经费、工作评定上予以倾斜。例如,伯克利规定,在本科生科研学徒计划中,教师指导一名本科生,学校给予500美元项目资助经费。有的学校还设立最杰出的教学成就奖,指导本科生科研可以使教师增强竞争力。麻省理工学院在教师聘任和提升过程中,把指导大学生研究计划等项目看作教学任务的一部分。为了鼓励本科生参加科研,宾夕法尼亚大学的本科生学者研究项目除了提供科研本身的成本外,还给学生提供暑期工作的食宿资助或差旅费。
 
  二、教学内容上,注重教学和科研的融合、通识教育和专业教育的融合
 
  科学研究是研究型大学的一个重要功能,注重教学和科研的融合是研究型大学的一个明显特征。这方面德国大学开辟了先河,教育家洪堡提出并在柏林大学中首次实施了教学与科研相结合的思想,将科学研究视为培养“有修养的人”的重要手段。他认为只有教师在创造性活动中取得的研究成果,才能作为知识加以传授,只有这种教学才真正够称大学水平。德国大学形成的这种创造性研究模式不仅被公认为19世纪“生产”职业科学家的最成功的范式,而且对美国等世界研究型大学的发展产生了深远的影响。在当今世界的研究型大学中,科学研究已经成为一个重要的职能。教师都要积极参加科学研究活动,这样他们可以把科研的最新成果带入到教学之中,带给学生。这是其它非研究型大学所无法比拟的。在教学过程中,教师将创造性的科研工作引入了教学过程,学生可以接触到学术领域中最新成果或最新问题,不仅向学生传授了最新知识,而且还引导学生了解那些尚未解决的问题,激发学生思考,使学生的创造性思维能力得到发展,使学生学会运用科学方法来思考和解决问题,同时也使学生了解了科学研究的过程,掌握了科学研究的方法。普林斯顿大学在注重教师科研和教学的融合方面也是一个典范。教师通过课堂教学和独立辅导把最新的研究成果传授给学生。名师执教又是高水平研究型大学的教学模式一个重要特点。为了扭转研究型大学“重科研、轻教学”的现象,美国的许多研究型大学采取了一系列的重要举措,其中最为重要的一条就是鼓励知名教授上讲台,为低年级学生介绍学科前沿动态和发展方向。
  与西方其它大学相比,英国大学对教学重视形成了根深蒂固的精英教育传统,因此科学研究进入英国大学起步较晚,但成绩却很骄人。至今英国获诺贝尔奖共有100多人,按人口计居世界首位,总数仅次于美国。当今的英国著名大学特别重视科研工作,并重视科研与教学的结合。剑桥大学的科学研究实力是最强的,获得的科研经费也最多,但剑桥大学始终重视教学工作,强调科学研究和教学的平衡,强调要培养拔尖人才。剑桥大学要求每一位教师既要搞科学研究,也要保证一定课时量的高水平教学,同时要求教师将自己的科研成果和前沿性知识教授给学生,不断更新教学内容,以科研来促进教学。在保证研究水平的前沿地位的情况下,学校有一整套教学质量保证制度,做到了学术研究与教学工作的协调发展。
实现通识教育与专业教育的平衡是研究型大学另外一个重要特点与趋势。高等教育是一种专业教育,但随着科学、技术和生产日益一体化,研究型大学在本科阶段的课程设置上更加注重基础学科,注重文、理、工的相互交叉和渗透,注重和加强课程的基础性和广博性,减少对低年级学生的专业化教育。美国研究型大学其教学理念就是不指望让学生掌握尽可能多的专业知识,而是着重使学生获得终身自我教育所需的基础知识,把“更少才是更多”(Less is more)这一具有哲理的基本原则纳入到本科课程设置当中。英国大学自由教育的传统源远流长。由于这一原因,英国著名研究型大学课程和专业的设置思想始终为:强调教育目的的内在性,追求知识本身的价值,反对教育外在的功利目的,重视学术性。英国高校的课程,普遍注重基础课程教育,反对实行时间过早、范围狭窄的专门化训练。例如,剑桥大学本科生课程设置最突出的特征之一,就是学生可在第一或第二学年中,在广泛的学科领域选课,使学生打下广博的知识基础,而在第二学年以后,学生可以根据自己的爱好,设计或选择专业学科进行学习。德国大学的课程分为两个阶段,即基础阶段和专业阶段。从柏林大学哲学系课程设置来看,课程内容不仅包括人文和社会科学等知识,还包括了自然科学科目。这些课程几乎囊括了除法、医、神等专业课程之外所有的高级学问,课程设置上体现了很强的基础性、交叉性和广泛性。
 
  三、在评价体系上,注重对教师的综合性评价和学生的能力评价
 
  在教师评价制度上,注重对教师的综合评价。研究型大学承担着教学、科研和社会服务的职能。因此,研究型大学教师考核体系就强调教师在教学、学术与创造性研究和服务性工作三个领域的重要作用。学校希望教师在这三个相互支撑的领域保持连续性和高水平,将一个公平、公正、透明的教师评估体系看作是学校管理架构中不可或缺的一部分。科学研究是研究型大学的重要职能,因此,对教师科研业绩的评价权重要大于其它非研究型大学。但是,在评价体系中,教学方面的权重仍然是最大的。通常美国研究型大学对教师教学、科研和社会服务评价的权重分别为50%、30%和20%。由此也可以说明,教学工作在研究型大学中仍然是最重要的工作。这样的评价标准本身就对强化学校的教学工作,对克服和避免只重科研的倾向具有明显的导向作用。此外,有的学校专门制定政策,激励教师投入教学工作。例如,康奈尔大学等还设立了“优秀教学奖”来鼓励更多的知名教授从事教学工作,特别是更多地登上本科教学的讲台。
  传统上,德国大学把科学研究当作学者的最高职责。到现在,科学资本对于德国大学教师在职业上的发展仍然起着决定性的影响,它的资本价值要远高于教学资本。因此,德国大学教师相对而言倾向于对科学资本的获取和积累,而把教学资本放在了相对次要的地位。但是,对教师教学评估的结果也是影响教师职位、晋升、薪水等最重要的因素之一。系统地、全方位的学生评价教师在德国的大学已形成一种制度。对大学教师应聘和提升职称所进行的教学考核评定工作必须征集学生的意见,每门课程或每学期结束前都要求学生对课程和授课教师的教学工作进行评价,以便为进一步改进教学提供反馈信息或作为人事决策的依据。英国大学教师有三个层次,即讲师、高级讲师和教授。从讲师到高级讲师比较容易,从高级讲师到教授则要求较高,特别是在研究方面,要看有多少出版物,有多少学生,研究资金如何,是否是一些学术委员会的成员。同时,对教师的教学水平也有很高的要求。例如,按照剑桥的规定,连续聘任的教师需要良好的教学成绩作为条件。其次,所有教授、高级讲师、讲师和助理讲师对大学的基础教育都有着法定的责任。在牛津和剑桥即使最著名的皇家教授和诺贝尔奖获得者也被要求给本科生上课。
  在学生考核制度上,注重学生综合能力评价。美国大学的考核往往不是一张试卷定终身,教学绝不围着考试转。在整个学期中,一般课程都要进行2~3次考核。考试中很少搞死记硬背,考试时可提供必要的公式和计算常数。题量虽不多,但特点鲜明,有较强的灵活性、综合性和实用性。考核中一般都会涉及一定数量的应用问题,需要学生运用学过的知识和技能,来解决一些实际问题。考核方式呈现多样化,例如让学生经常结合教学内容和研究专题撰写论文,作为课程考核的组成部分,其中对知识的应用能力和创新能力的评价是十分突出的。例如,耶鲁大学主张教学中不给学生特定内容,很多考卷的题目也没有唯一的正确答案,其目的就在于培养学生独立思考、批判思维、严密分析、从不同视角看问题、不断创新的能力。
  英国高校根据专业能力和创新能力来评定学生的学习成绩。考核方法多样,采用比较多的考核方法是“小组作业”和“个人作业”。小组作业一般由3~5人分工完成。每个小组的题目不同,小组成员要定期进行讨论。在小组研究过后,可能需要进行课程设计或撰写小论文(有的是案例分析),字数一般为3000字左右。之后,由小组成员分工把主要内容采用适当的形式(多采用PowerPoint)讲解出来,其他小组的成员和教师会就作业内容提出问题。小组作业一般占个人总成绩的40%。至于个人作业或考试,理工科的学生往往是做设计,文科学生则多为案例分析或写论文。个人作业或考试一般占个人总成绩的60%。除此之外,学生在学完全部课程后还要写出毕业论文。论文一般是由本校导师和一名由该导师选定的校外导师共同评定分数。任课教师出试卷,由校外同行专家审阅,以保证试卷的难度适中,同时保证各大学的考试水平大体一致。德国大学的考试很严格,难度也很大,但有一定的灵活性。如大学里讨论课很多,一般不用闭卷考试的方式。学期结束时教师根据发言提纲和发言情况评定成绩。这样的考核形式突出的是学生在大量阅读、思考的基础上对问题的分析、综合能力的培养,一方面考核了学生对基础知识掌握的情况,另一方面也考核了学生的口头表达能力和思辨能力。


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