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The advantages and reference of the teaching model of foreig

Author: Time:2018-01-23 16:36 Source:未知
In this paper:知识经济时代,世界各国都在重视和加强培养具有创新素质的人才。研究型大学由于具有良好的师资队伍、先进的科研条件和宽松活跃的学术氛围,因此,在创新人才培养方面有其独特...

In the era of knowledge economy, all countries in the world pay attention to and strengthen the cultivation of talents with innovative qualities. The research university has its unique advantages in the cultivation of innovative talents because of its excellent faculty, advanced scientific research conditions and relaxed and active academic atmosphere. We are from the aspects of teaching mode, teaching content, teaching evaluation, mainly analyzes the United States, Britain and Germany a few high level research universities in the developed countries the characteristics and advantages in the talents training mode, purport to be used for reference in research universities cultivate innovative talents in our country.
First, in teaching mode, focus on discussion and research.
In order to adapt to the needs of innovative talents training, national research universities are creating new teaching models which are conducive to the cultivation of innovative talents. In 1998, the United States, boyer research university undergraduate education commission issued a "reconstruction of undergraduate education: American research universities development blueprint" study, specifically their exploration is unique only research universities a new undergraduate teaching mode: undergraduate students to benefit from the postgraduate education system unique resources; Research universities give students the breadth of experience and ability that other education institutions cannot provide, a truly valuable research experience that gives graduates special creativity. The report specifically proposes that "research-based learning" should be the standard, and that each person should be a learner, a discoverer, and a researcher. Is the basic concept of this teaching mode, stress and require students to actively participate in the teaching process, emphasizes the study is based on the teacher found that, under the guidance of emphasizing the students' practice and subjective initiative of the play, pay attention to the cultivation of students' innovative spirit and ability. In fact, this is what we call the basic idea of research-based teaching. Under this concept, the specific teaching mode is flexible and varied, such as heuristic teaching method, case teaching method, seminar method, discovery method, problem teaching method and research learning. In various forms of teaching, students are emphasized and required to participate in the teaching process, rather than passive listening. Among them, it is the two most prominent characteristics of the reform of teaching mode of foreign research universities.
First, focus on the seminar. The Seminar is one of the most important forms of teaching in German universities. Now the seminar is also very popular in the classroom teaching of research universities in other countries. Research universities in the United States generally have seminars from the first year of undergraduate study, and more seminars have been opened in recent years. For example, from 2008 to 2009 Princeton university opened 74 seminars for freshmen, each opening to all freshmen, and students were able to choose between departments. In the fall of 2008, harvard opened 135 seminars for students. Some of these for freshman seminar with the nature of the "introduction", but not many of our teachers to understand the kind of emphasis on knowledge of systematic and comprehensive introduction to "class", but stressed that "guide", stimulate students interest in the subject, emphasizes the lines and achieve mastery through a comprehensive study of knowledge, causes the student to accept specific training in scientific research methods, thus has considerable depth. In addition, American universities offer a variety of interdisciplinary and comprehensive symposiums, hosted by experienced teachers. The students according to their own interest for elementary, students in the small (typically limited to 10 people) in the workshop, with teachers from the perspectives of different disciplines to explore the hot issues of exciting, around the theme to consult the rich knowledge of literature, to carry out cooperative learning group, communicate in lively discussion, write academic papers and reports. This kind of seminar is more difficult, but this kind of interdisciplinary learning experience is particularly conducive to the cultivation of students' spirit of inquiry.
The seminar is also a kind of teaching model which is often used in English research universities. Among them, the tutorial system is the characteristic of the famous university teaching model. The discussion and communication between teachers and students is the basic form of tutor teaching. Tutors are initially taught one-to-one by tutors and students. As a result of the expansion of the student scale, now the tutor is teaching more than two students together, even 3 ~ 4 people. The core purpose of tutor teaching is to cultivate students' ability to explore knowledge and independent thinking. Therefore, teacher is not the message, don't care how much knowledge students or give him how much information, but to cultivate their independent learning, thinking, working skills and critical skills, be full of wisdom and reason. For example, the university of Oxford has invested a great deal of resources in the tutorial system. In all 24 weeks of a school year, liberal arts instructors teach 12 hours a week, and science teaching is 6 hours a week, which is far more expensive than other college teachers. In addition, academics at Oxford must teach in a wider range of areas than other universities. In order to guarantee the teaching quality of the college, the college strictly decides the enrollment number according to the proportion of the students. In the 1980s, tutors were generally responsible for 6 to 12 students, and by the mid-1990s, a mentor was responsible for about 20 undergraduates.
Second, focus on research learning. Students are under the guidance of teachers, in a similar scientific research way to obtain information or application knowledge, problem solving, inquiry learning for cultivating students' innovation spirit and innovation ability, has the vital role. Therefore, many foreign research universities have established undergraduate research programs, so that students' active participation in scientific research activities has become an important feature of the innovative talent teaching mode.
The United States is one of the most extensive and perfect systems for undergraduate research. In order to guarantee the development of undergraduate research, the American research university attaches great importance to the leadership and organization management of undergraduate research, and generally establishes the undergraduate scientific research management institution at the school level. For example, Stanford university and uc Berkeley established the undergraduate research office in 1994 and 1997 to organize and provide services for undergraduate research. There are two kinds of research programs for undergraduate students in the research universities, which are generally divided into two kinds. One is that students participate as apprentices in the research projects, which are mainly teachers, and serve as research assistants in them. Second, the students proposed the project plan by themselves, including research projects, creative design work and public service projects, and students applied for research funds to the school. From the funding sources of undergraduate research projects, there are research projects funded by departments or schools, as well as research projects funded by various external organizations. Stanford university, for example, provided $4 million in grants to 1,200 undergraduates between 2006 and 2007. Students need to participate in every stage of standard scientific research, including writing research applications and plans, conducting research, analyzing data and presenting results in both oral and written form. Research projects can be completed in one semester, but most will take more than one academic year. American universities generally incorporate undergraduate research into the curriculum, and students who participate in research programs can earn academic credits as part of their total credits. In order to better carry out undergraduate scientific research plan and can obtain good effect, the school also equipped with a mentor to undergraduates, and to encourage undergraduate scientific research under the guidance of teachers, for teachers to guide undergraduate research, the university on the funds, job evaluation be tilted. Berkeley, for example, says that under the undergraduate program, a teacher instructs an undergraduate and the school grants $500. Some schools also set up the most outstanding teaching achievement award, which can help teachers enhance their competitiveness. In the course of teachers' engagement and promotion, the Massachusetts institute of technology considers projects such as mentoring programs as part of the teaching task. In order to encourage undergraduate students to participate in scientific research, of the university of Pennsylvania, undergraduate academic research projects in addition to providing scientific research itself cost, to provide room and board for a summer job or travel.
Ii. Teaching content, focusing on the fusion of teaching and research, the integration of education and professional education.
Scientific research is an important function of research universities, and the integration of teaching and research is an obvious feature of research universities. The German university opens the first educator Humboldt proposed and implemented for the first time in Berlin university in the combination of teaching and scientific research, scientific research as an important means of training "has the tutelage of man". He believes that only the research results obtained by teachers in creative activities can be taught as knowledge, and only this kind of teaching can truly be called the university level. German university to form the creative research model is recognized as the 19th century not only one of the most successful paradigm of "production" professional scientists, but also for the United States and other world had a profound impact on the development of research universities. In today's world of research universities, scientific research has become an important function. Teachers should actively participate in scientific research activities so that they can bring the latest achievements of scientific research into teaching and bring them to students. This is unmatched by other non-research universities. In the teaching process, teachers will creative scientific research work is introduced into the teaching process, students have access to the latest achievements in the academic field or the latest problem, not only to teach students the latest knowledge, but also guide the student to understand those unsolved problems, inspire students to think about, so that the students' creative thinking ability, make students learn to use scientific methods to think and solve problems, but also make the students understand the process of scientific research, master the scientific research method. Princeton university is also a model for the integration of teachers' research and teaching. Teachers pass the latest research results to students through classroom teaching and independent tutoring. It is an important feature of the teaching model of high level research university. In order to reverse the research universities' scientific research, teaching, many research universities in the United States has adopted a series of important measures, one of the most important one is to encourage professors on the platform, introduce junior student discipline frontier dynamic and development direction.
Compared with other western universities, British universities have established a deep-rooted tradition of education in teaching, so scientific research started late in British universities, but the results were impressive. There are more than 100 Nobel prizes in Britain, ranking the world's largest by population, second only to the United States. Nowadays, famous universities in Britain attach great importance to scientific research and attach importance to the combination of research and teaching. At the university of Cambridge is the most powerful scientific research strength, the research is also the most, but always attaches great importance to the teaching job at Cambridge university, emphasize the balance of scientific research and teaching, emphasize to cultivate talent. At the university of Cambridge asked each teacher to do science research, and to ensure the high levels of certain amount of class teaching, at the same time requires teachers to their own scientific research professor and cutting-edge knowledge to students, constantly updating the teaching contents, to scientific research to promote teaching. Under the condition that the research level is at the forefront, the school has a complete set of teaching quality assurance system, which achieves the coordinated development of academic research and teaching work.
To realize the balance of education and education is another important characteristic and trend of research universities. Higher education is a kind of professional education, but as science, technology and production integration, research university in the undergraduate curriculum pays more attention to basic subject, pay attention to the cross culture, science, engineering and penetration, pay attention to and strengthen the foundational courses and extensive, reduce the specialized education for junior student. The American research universities teaching ideas just don't expect to make the students master as much professional knowledge, but rather to make the students obtain the basic knowledge needed to lifelong education itself, the "Less is more" (Less is more) this is the basic principle of philosophy into the undergraduate curriculum setting. The tradition of free education has a long history. For this reason, the British famous research university courses and professional setting is always: emphasize the internality of education goal, the value of the pursuit of knowledge itself, against education external utilitarian purpose, attaches great importance to the academic. Courses in UK universities, which focus on education for basic courses, are against the practice of too early and narrow specialization training. Undergraduate students at the university of Cambridge, for example, one of the most prominent feature of the curriculum, students can be in the first or second year, to register in a wide range of subject areas, to make the students lay a broad knowledge base, and after the second year, students can according to own hobby, design or choose professional discipline to study. German university courses are divided into two stages, namely, the basic and professional stages. From the curriculum of the philosophy department of the university of Berlin, the course content includes not only the knowledge of humanities and social sciences, but also the subjects of natural science. These courses cover almost all the advanced knowledge of division, medicine, god and other specialized courses, and the curriculum is very basic, intersecting and extensive.
Third, in the evaluation system, the attention to the teacher comprehensive evaluation and the student's ability evaluation.
In the teacher evaluation system, attention to teacher's comprehensive evaluation. Research universities undertake the functions of teaching, scientific research and social services. Therefore, the teacher assessment system of research universities emphasizes the important role of teachers in teaching, academic and creative research and service work. Hope teachers support each other in these three areas to maintain continuity and high level, will be a fair assessment system of teachers, fair and transparent as an integral part of school management structure. Scientific research is an important function of research universities, so it is more important to evaluate teachers' achievements than other non-research universities. However, in the evaluation system, the weight of teaching is still the largest. Generally, the weight of the evaluation of teachers' teaching, scientific research and social service is 50%, 30% and 20% respectively. It can also be explained that teaching is still the most important work in research universities. Such evaluation standard itself is to strengthen the teaching work of the school, to overcome and avoid the tendency of only heavy scientific research has the obvious guiding effect. In addition, some schools make policies to encourage teachers to devote themselves to teaching. For example, Cornell university and others have established "excellent teaching award" to encourage more well-known professors to engage in teaching work, especially on the stage of undergraduate teaching.
Traditionally, German universities regard scientific research as the highest duty of scholars. At present, scientific capital still plays a decisive role in the development of German university teachers in their profession, and its capital value is much higher than that of teaching capital. Therefore, German university teachers tend to acquire and accumulate scientific capital, and put teaching capital in a relatively minor position. However, the results of teachers' teaching evaluation are also one of the most important factors affecting teachers' position, promotion and salary. Systematic and comprehensive evaluation of teachers in German universities has formed a system. To apply for university teachers and promote the title of the teaching assessment assessment work must solicit the opinions of the students, or before the end of each semester. Each course requires students to course teaching and teachers' teaching work evaluation, so as to further improve teaching to provide feedback or used as the basis for personnel decisions. British university teachers have three levels: lecturers, senior lecturers and professors. From the instructor to senior lecturer easier, from senior lecturer, professor to the demand is higher, especially in the research, to see how many publications, how many students are, how research funding, if some members of the academic committee. At the same time, the teaching level of teachers also has high requirements. For example, according to the Cambridge regulations, teachers who are hired continuously need good grades as a condition. Second, all professors, senior lecturers, lecturers and assistant lecturers have statutory responsibilities for the university's basic education. Even the most famous royal professors and Nobel laureates in Oxford and Cambridge are required to teach undergraduates.
In the student appraisal system, the attention to the student comprehensive ability evaluation. The assessment of an American college is not always a test paper. During the whole semester, the general course will be evaluated 2-3 times. There are few rote memorization in the exam, and the necessary formulas and calculation constants can be provided during the examination. Although the quantity is not much, but the characteristic is bright, has the strong flexibility, the comprehensiveness and the practicality. The assessment usually involves a certain number of application problems, which requires students to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to solve some practical problems. Appraisal way diversification, for example, lets the student compose the thesis combined with the teaching content and the research project, often as part of the curriculum assessment, including the application of knowledge ability and innovation ability evaluation is very important. Yale university, for example, claims that don't give students specific content in the teaching, the topic of a lot of test paper also does not have the only right answer, its purpose lies in cultivating students' independent thinking, critical thinking, analysis, problem from a different perspective and innovative ability.
British universities judge students' academic performance according to their professional ability and innovative ability. The method of assessment is varied, and the method of assessment is "group work" and "individual homework". The group work is usually done by 3 ~ 5 people. Each group's topic is different, and the group members should discuss it regularly. After the group study, it may be necessary to design or write a small paper (some case analysis), and the number of words is about 3000 words. After that, the division divides the main content into the proper form (using PowerPoint), and the members and teachers of other groups ask questions about the content. Group assignments typically account for 40 percent of a person's overall grade. As for individual assignments or exams, students in science and engineering tend to do design, while liberal arts students tend to do case studies or write essays. Individual assignments or exams generally account for 60% of your overall grade. In addition, the student will write a graduation thesis after completing the course. The thesis is generally assessed by the tutor and a tutor selected by the tutor. The teacher gives the test paper, which is reviewed by the experts outside the school, to ensure the difficulty of the examination paper, and to ensure that the examination level of each university is roughly the same. German universities are rigorous and difficult, but with some flexibility. There are a lot of discussion sections in universities, and there is no need to close the exam. At the end of the term, the teacher will assess the performance according to the outline of the speech and the performance of the speech. This assessment form to highlight is the student in a lot of reading, on the basis of the analysis of the problems with thinking, the cultivation of comprehensive ability, on the one hand, assessment of the student to the basic knowledge, on the other hand also examined in the oral expression ability and thinking ability of students.
实现通识教育与专业教育的平衡是研究型大学另外一个重要特点与趋势。高等教育是一种专业教育,但随着科学、技术和生产日益一体化,研究型大学在本科阶段的课程设置上更加注重基础学科,注重文、理、工的相互交叉和渗透,注重和加强课程的基础性和广博性,减少对低年级学生的专业化教育。美国研究型大学其教学理念就是不指望让学生掌握尽可能多的专业知识,而是着重使学生获得终身自我教育所需的基础知识,把“更少才是更多”(Less is more)这一具有哲理的基本原则纳入到本科课程设置当中。英国大学自由教育的传统源远流长。由于这一原因,英国著名研究型大学课程和专业的设置思想始终为:强调教育目的的内在性,追求知识本身的价值,反对教育外在的功利目的,重视学术性。英国高校的课程,普遍注重基础课程教育,反对实行时间过早、范围狭窄的专门化训练。例如,剑桥大学本科生课程设置最突出的特征之一,就是学生可在第一或第二学年中,在广泛的学科领域选课,使学生打下广博的知识基础,而在第二学年以后,学生可以根据自己的爱好,设计或选择专业学科进行学习。德国大学的课程分为两个阶段,即基础阶段和专业阶段。从柏林大学哲学系课程设置来看,课程内容不仅包括人文和社会科学等知识,还包括了自然科学科目。这些课程几乎囊括了除法、医、神等专业课程之外所有的高级学问,课程设置上体现了很强的基础性、交叉性和广泛性。

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