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Overview of China's overseas education development in 2015.2

Author: huihui Time:2018-01-23 14:09 Source:未知
In this paper:{C}2015中国国际教育展之际,由中国与全球化智库(CCG)研究编写、中国社科院社会科学文献出版社出版的国际人才蓝皮书《中国留学发展报告(2015)》发布,报告总结了中国2015年留学...

{C} 2015 China international education exhibition, by the Chinese and global think-tank (CCG) research and writing, Chinese academy of social sciences academic press, the international talent of blue book "study in China development report (2015), the report summarizes the present situation and characteristics on the development of China in 2015 to study abroad, study abroad destination diversification and economic exchanges with China active national attention, young study abroad increased, integrity problems faced by Chinese students and school crisis and other issues, and to reduce the deficit" study abroad ", study abroad in China's soft power, speed up the development of the students and development put forward some suggestion to study "dividend".
 
Middle-income countries have become the main source of study abroad.
 
The number of international students in the world continues to increase, and the number of students receiving advanced education is more obvious. The pattern of studying abroad and the country of origin has changed, and emerging countries have become popular destinations for study abroad. Middle-income countries have become the main source countries for studying abroad. According to the world bank, China, Thailand, Malaysia and other middle and high-income countries were among the fastest growing among students who went abroad for education from 2000 to 2012. In 2012, the number of students studying abroad in middle and high-income countries reached 1.42 million, an increase of 160.9 percent compared with 540,000 in 2000. The second is India, Indonesia and the Philippines, where the number of students studying abroad rose from 340, 000 in 2000 to 750,000 in 2012, with a growth rate of 120.6 percent. In contrast, high income OECD countries and non-oecd countries have relatively stable output, with annual growth rates of roughly 10 per cent.
 
The regional trend of international higher education is obvious.
 
In the process of internationalization of education, higher education regionalization has become a prominent feature. Worldwide, the two regions are already in the construction area of higher education space. The Erasmus Mundus project, the construction of the European Community's higher education district, has become a typical representative of this trend. In a climate of economic uncertainty in Europe, job-oriented projects such as internships are more likely to attract the attention of various student groups.
 
With the process of asean integration, higher education integration among asean countries is also more and more important. Asean countries are currently coordinating the following aspects: first, to build a unified education framework and achieve a basic and consistent curriculum system within the asean region; To assess and authorize certification of education institutions, including universities and colleges within asean, on regional certification issues; Third, improve education quality. Within the framework of asean, a systematic evaluation system is being set up to guarantee the quality of education integration.
 
"One Belt And One Road" and other countries that are active in China's economic exchanges are receiving more and more attention.
 
By far the most popular with the Chinese students study abroad destination country is still in english-speaking countries, but has active economic exchanges with China in the gradually be taken seriously, the future will be more attractive to Chinese students. With the promotion of the "One Belt And One Road" strategy, students from countries along the routes will also become the core scarce talents, which will also stimulate the spread of Chinese students to relevant countries. Key countries such as Singapore and Malaysia. The Singapore government and the Malaysian government's preferential measures for overseas students have obvious appeal to Chinese students. In addition, some non-english countries have introduced various measures to attract overseas students, which will also promote the further diversion of Chinese students from english-speaking countries.
 
Along with the advancement of "area" and the investment Banks, Chinese society is facing from the "introduction" to the transformation of "going out", in this transformation process, the international success of the transformation of talent will surely become one of the key elements. All the way "and" area, the investment Banks involved in the area for many enterprises in China, it is very strange region, no large professional talent reserves, it is difficult to promote good "area" strategy implementation.
 
Countries along the, therefore, to strengthen the study abroad and study abroad in China is in the construction of "area" as the important carrier of talent training and communication, and set up a "neighbourhood" all the way to study fund, increase investment in study in education, will develop a strategy of "area" all the way to implement the important fulcrum of international talent required.
 
The professional choice of Chinese students: the business department cooled and the international relations increased.
 
FAME (finance, accounting, management, economics) and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) are most popular with international students. The main reason is that graduates of these majors have broad employment prospects and high salaries. In particular, business majors have been the first choice for most international students in the past ten years. But according to the blue book, international students' preference for business majors declined by nearly 9 percent compared with 2009, while others, such as STEM majors and international relations, rose. The reasons are mainly affected by the employment situation.
 
In recent years, the choice of business administration has obvious drop, proportion of students and professional boom rising STEM areas, with the main study abroad countries issued a series of preferential policies for STEM class students are inseparable, such as immigration policies, these policies have great influence to attract STEM class professional students.
 
The number of Chinese students returning to China has continued to increase. After three years, graduates from overseas graduate schools have a higher quality of employment than those of the same class.
 
The trend of returning students reflects a high degree of agreement on the global economic development. From 2008 to 2009, under the influence of the global financial crisis, the European and American countries increased difficulties of employment, and a large number of students returning from employment, returned students' growth rate more than 55% over the past two years, 57.50% peak in 2008. Similarly, due to the effects of the recession, the euro crisis and the European Union and parts of Europe and the United States because of the local employment problem to restrict students employment policy, 2012 Chinese students studying in European countries, there is massive returning tide, when the number of returned students growth peak again. In 2014, the number of overseas students returned to China reached 36.48 million, an increase of 130,000 over 2013 and a 3.20% increase. By 2014, the total number of students returning to China had reached 180.96 million, accounting for 51.4 percent of the total number of students studying abroad.
 
According to the data of the survey, the employment quality of the 2011 graduates is higher than that of the graduates in the same period. The average monthly income of the class of 2011 graduates is 1854 yuan higher than that of the domestic graduate students. In 2011, the employment satisfaction of graduates from overseas graduate school was higher than that of graduates and graduates of the same period. According to the comprehensive view, the overall competitiveness of graduate students in the field after three years is higher than that of graduates from the same period.
 
The trend of one-way flow of study in China and the United States is obvious, and it is suggested that we should step up efforts to study in China and break the policy to tap the international "talent dividend".
 
The number of Chinese students studying in the United States is still far higher than that of the United States, while the trend of one-way flow of study in China is clear. And on September 22, 2015, Chinese President xi jinping in Seattle in the United States to attend the friendly group, jointly organized by the local government and the United States on the welcome dinner delivered an important speech, pointed out that "the next three years, the two countries will exchange 50000 students to other countries to learn". It is suggested that China should intensify its efforts to study in China. Facing the surging tide of talent flow, studying in China will become a new highlight of education development in China. Coping with the talent flow trend, create an open environment, tolerance of people friendly society is to attract international talents "forms", fully tap the key to "talent dividend".
 
The phenomenon of China's underage study is increasing, which leads to the loss of excellent students in China's universities. It is suggested to promote the internationalization strategy of universities and encourage colleges to recruit students all over the world.
 
In 2015, the popularity of Chinese high school students studying abroad continued. The proportion of high school students choosing to study abroad to study in high school or college has increased significantly. In China, nearly one million people abandon the exam every year. All these have aggravated the source crisis of Chinese universities, and will also push China's higher education to promote internationalization level and openness.
 
In view of internationalization of Chinese universities, it is suggested to improve from the following two aspects:
 
First, relax restrictions and strengthen cooperation in running schools. Universities should be encouraged to set up more international exchange programs, and should release the relevant restrictions of foreign universities in China to retain some excellent students. At the same time, also should draw lessons from other countries in colleges and universities cooperation with China's top high school experience, greater China well-known colleges and universities cooperation with foreign outstanding high school, to cultivate excellent undergraduate international students in China ahead of time.
 
The second is to encourage universities to actively explore "go out" and recruit excellent students from all over the world. Chinese universities have made some explorations in "going out". Beijing language and culture university in Tokyo set up Beijing language and culture university Tokyo college, where students can obtain Beijing language and culture university's diplomas and diplomas after completing their studies. Tsinghua university, the university of Washington and Microsoft have jointly established the global innovation institute, which is the first entity campus and comprehensive education research institution established by Chinese universities in the United States. Tsinghua university and Beijing language and culture university have provided some reference and reference value for universities in China.
 
Chinese students are faced with a crisis of integrity and need to strengthen their legal awareness and knowledge.
 
With the growing number of Chinese students studying abroad, the problem of cheating and cheating is becoming more and more prominent. The specific cheating behavior is reflected in the various types of study abroad examinations, such as the SAT and toefl, and the application of essays in the admission materials and the falsification of the report card. For students and parents of students preparing to go overseas, the first thing to do their homework, such as active learning to study the rule of law of the country, to raise their consciousness of laws and regulations, reduce the probability of breaking the law, at the same time to ensure their rights are violated when can take legal weapon to protect themselves. Second, improve their own language skills and enhance their ability to integrate into local society and culture. Third, it is suggested that China should establish legal counsellors for foreign students in embassies abroad and provide basic legal advice and legal aid to Chinese overseas students and overseas Chinese. At the same time, the embassy can also be distributed through) the country "question and answer booklet basic law" and so on, for international students, overseas Chinese in local work or travel, domestic related enterprises to develop business. Fourthly, for small age, low self-control, mind is not yet ripe for foreign students, actively advocate overseas students guardian system, specify the local guardian for international students, strengthen risk prevention.
 
The demand for overseas study and entrepreneurship of education is obvious, and it is recommended to develop education in sino-foreign cooperative venture, so as to cultivate entrepreneurial international talents.
 
There is an obvious "bottom-up" innovation and entrepreneurship trend in China. In 2014, the number of new entrepreneurial enterprises in zhongguancun reached a new high, reaching 9,000, and the phenomenon of "21 years old" has emerged in the university. The demand for entrepreneurship education will grow rapidly with the increase of college students' entrepreneurial demand and policy encouragement. On the other hand, China has begun to attach importance to studying in China and attracting international talents. If you can build an international startup education environment, you will be more attractive to foreign excellent students. It is suggested that China should draw on the experience of developed countries, actively introduce international high-quality education resources, and set up an international enterprise education system.
 
In view of the development of sino-foreign cooperative venture education, cultivating entrepreneurial international talent, China and the global think-tank suggestion from the following three aspects: one is to encourage university and famous joint venture of the international education courses and programs. The second is to establish a sino-foreign joint venture university. Third, China and foreign countries jointly foster more entrepreneurial education teachers.
 
The number of legal overseas study institutions in China has decreased, and the intermediary market for overseas study has been scattered and lack of leading enterprises.
 
Along with the continuous progress of the reform and opening and the development of study in China market, the number of study abroad intermediary achieved rapid growth, China's study abroad intermediary agencies have been able to fully meet the needs of the study in development. With the improvement of regulations and institutions to strengthen self-discipline consciousness, Chinese to study abroad intermediary industry gradually perfect, but its in the regional distribution and service charges and meet the personalized requirements of increasingly, there are a lot of room to improve in aspects, mainly manifested in the following aspects: one is the study abroad intermediary area distribution, significant difference was found in eastern, central and western; Second, the number of legal institutions in China has declined. Third, the overseas study intermediary market dispersion, lack of leading enterprises.
 
Author: wang huiyao, director of the China and globalization think tank (CCG).



 
{C}2015中国国际教育展之际,由中国与全球化智库(CCG)研究编写、中国社科院社会科学文献出版社出版的国际人才蓝皮书《中国留学发展报告(2015)》发布,报告总结了中国2015年留学发展的现状与特点——留学目的地多样化、与中方经济交往活跃的国家受到重视、低龄留学加剧、中国留学生所面临诚信问题和退学危机等问题,并对缩小“留学赤字”、提升中国留学软实力、加快发展来华留学及开发“留学红利”等方面提出了相关建议。
  中等收入国家成为主要留学生源国
  全球留学生人数持续增加,其中接受高等教育的留学生人数增长更为明显;留学目的国和来源国格局均有所改变,新兴国家成为热门留学目的国,中等收入国家成为留学主要生源国。根据世界银行的数据,在2000年至2012年出国接受高等教育的学生来源国中,增长最快的主要是中国、泰国、马来西亚等中高收入国家。2012年,中高收入国家的出国留学人数达到142万人,与2000年的54万人相比,增长率高达160.9%。其次是印度、印度尼西亚、菲律宾中低收入国家,留学人数从2000年的34万人增长至2012年的75万人,实现了120.6%的增长。相比之下,高收入的OECD国家和非OECD国家的留学人数输出相对稳定,年增长率基本保持在10%以下。
  国际高等教育区域化趋势明显
  在高等教育国际化的过程中,高等教育区域化已成为一个显著特点。世界范围内,两大区域已经在建设区域内的高等教育空间。欧共体的高等教育区的建设—Erasmus Mundus计划,已成为这一趋势的典型代表。在欧洲经济情况不乐观的大环境下,实习等以就业为导向的项目更容易引起各类学生群体的关注。
  随着东盟一体化的进程,东盟国家之间的高等教育一体化也越来越被重视。东盟国家目前正在就以下几个方面的问题进行协调:一是构建统一的教育框架,在东盟区域范围内实现基本一致的课程体系;就区域认证问题,对东盟范围内的大学、学院等教育机构给予评估并授权认证;三是提高教育质量。东盟范围内正在筹建一个系统的评价体系,以对高等教育一体化进行质量保障。
  “一带一路”沿线等与中国经济交往活跃的国家逐渐受到重视
  目前最受中国留学生欢迎的留学目的国仍是英语国家,但与中国有活跃经济交往的国家逐渐受到重视,未来将可能吸引更多的中国留学生。而随着“一带一路”战略构想的推进,沿线国家的留学生也将会成为核心稀缺人才,也将刺激中国留学生向相关国家分散。重点国家如新加坡及马来西亚。新加坡政府和马来西亚政府对留学生所采取的优惠措施对中国留学生有着明显的吸引力。此外,部分非英文国家出台各种措施,吸引留学生,也将促进中国留学生进一步从英语国家分流。
  随着“一带一路”和亚投行的推进,中国社会面临着从“引进来”向“走出去”的转型,在这一转型过程中,国际化的人才无疑成了转型能否成功的关键要素之一。而“一带一路”、亚投行所涉及的区域对中国诸多企业而言,是非常陌生的地区,没有大量的专业性人才的储备,很难推动好“一带一路”战略实施。
  因此,加强沿线国家来华留学和出国留学是“一带一路”建设中人才培养和交流的重要载体,而设立“一带一路”留学基金,加大留学教育的投入,将成为培养“一带一路”战略实施所需国际人才的重要抓手。
  中国留学生专业选择:商科降温,国际关系等有所上升
  FAME专业(金融、会计、管理、经济)和STEM专业(科学、技术、工程和数学)最受国际留学生的欢迎。主要因为这些专业的毕业生就业前景广阔、薪资丰厚。尤其是商科专业,近十年来一直是大部分国际留学生的首选。但根据蓝皮书,相比于2009年,国际留学生对商科专业的偏好有多下降,减少了近9%,而其他如STEM专业、国际关系等却都有所上升。究其原因,主要受就业情况的影响。
  近些年,选择工商管理的学生比例有明显的下降,而STEM领域专业的热潮持续高涨,这与主要留学国家针对STEM类专业学生出台的一系列优惠政策是分不开的,如移民政策,这些政策的出台对于吸引STEM类专业学生有较大影响力。
  中国留学回国人员持续增加,国外读研毕业生三年后的就业质量高于同届国内读研毕业生
  留学生归国的趋势反映了全球经济发展形势高度吻合。2008-2009年,在全球金融危机的影响下,欧美国家就业难度加大,大批留学生归国就业,这两年回国留学生人数增长率均超过55%,2008年达到最高值57.50%。同理,由于受到欧元危机和欧盟经济衰退的影响,以及部分欧美国家因为本土就业问题而限制留学生就业的政策影响,2012年在欧洲国家留学的中国学生也出现大规模的归国潮,当年归国留学生人数增长率再次达到峰值。2014年,留学回国人数达到36.48万人次,比2013年增加了1.13万人次,增长了3.20%。截止2014年,中国留学回国累计总人数已达180.96万人次,占出国留学累计总人数的51.4%。
  根据调研数据显示,2011届国外读研毕业生三年后的就业质量高于同届国内读研毕业生;2011届国外读研毕业生三年后的月平均收入比同届国内读研毕业生高1854元;2011届国外读研毕业生的就业满意度高于同届国内读研毕业生和本科毕业生。综合看来,国外读研毕业生三年后在职场中的综合竞争力要高于同届国内读研毕业生。
  中美留学单向流动趋势明显,建议加大力度发展来华留学,突破政策挖掘国际“人才红利”
  中国在美留学人员数目仍远超美国在中留学人数,同时中美留学单向流动趋势明显。而2015年9月22日,中国国家主席习近平在美国西雅图出席当地政府和美国友好团体联合举办的欢迎晚宴上发表重要演讲,指出“未来三年,中美两国将互派5万名留学生到对方国家去学习”。建议中国要加大力度发展来华留学。面对汹涌奔腾的人才流动浪潮,来华留学将成为中国教育发展的新亮点。积极应对人才流动潮流,营造一个开放包容的人才友好型社会环境,是吸引国际人才“为我所用”、充分挖掘国际“人才红利”的关键所在。
  中国低龄留学现象加剧,导致中国国内高校优秀生源流失,建议推进高校国际化的战略,鼓励高校面向全世界招生
  2015年,中国高中生出国留学的热度持续。高中生选择出国留学就读高中或者本科的比例明显增加。中国全国每年近百万弃考大军中,因选择出国留学而放弃高考者达两成。这些都加剧了中国高校的生源危机,同时也将会倒逼中国高等教育提升国际化水平和开放程度。
  针对中国高校国际化,建议从以下两个方面进行提高:
  一是放宽限制,加强合作办学。应鼓励高校建立更多国际化交流交换项目,并应适时放开国外大学在华设立分校的有关限制,留住部分优秀生源。同时,也应该借鉴其他国家高校与中国顶尖中学合作的经验,加大中国知名高校与国外优秀高中的合作,提前培育优秀本科来华留学生生源。
  二是鼓励高校积极探索“走出去”,到世界各地招收优秀生源。中国国内高校在“走出去”方面做了一些探索。如北京语言大学在东京设立北语东京学院,学生完成学业后可获得北京语言大学的毕业证书和学位证书。清华大学、华盛顿大学和微软公司联合创建全球创新学院,成为中国高校在美国设立的第一个实体校区和综合性教育科研机构。清华大学和北京语言大学在高校“走出去”方面,为国内高校提供了一定的借鉴和参考价值。
  中国留学生面临诚信危机,亟待加强对留学生法律意识和知识的培养
  随着中国留学生群体的日益扩大,中国留学生作弊和造假的问题也日益凸显。具体作弊行为体现在SAT、托福等各大类型的留学考试中,也体现在入学材料中的申请短文代写以及成绩单造假等方面。对于准备出国的留学生及学生家长,首先要做好自身功课,如主动学习留学国家的法律规则,提升自身的法律法规意识,减少触犯法律的概率,同时保证自身权利受到侵害时能拿起法律武器保护自己。其二,提高自身语言能力,增强融入当地社会和文化的能力。其三,建议中国在驻外使馆设立留学生法务参赞,为中国海外留学生、华侨华人提供所在国的基本法律法规咨询和法律援助。同时驻外使馆也可以通过编印发放所在国《基本法律规定问答小册子》等方式,为留学生、在当地工作或旅游的华侨华人、国内相关企业开拓业务等提供便利。其四,对于年龄偏小、自控力较低、心智尚未成熟的留学生而言,积极倡导海外留学生监护人制度,为留学生指定当地监护人,加强风险防范。
  海外留学创业教育需求明显,建议发展中外合作创业教育,大力培育创业型国际化人才
  目前中国出现了明显的市场主导的“自下而上”的创新创业势头。中关村2014年新增创业企业数量再创新高,达到9000家,并且出现了高校大三学生休学创业的“21岁现象”。在大学生创业需求增加和政策鼓励下,创业教育的需求将迅速增长。另一方面,中国开始重视来华留学和吸引国际外来人才。如果能够构建国际化的创业教育环境,则可以对外国优秀学生产生更大吸引力。建议中国借鉴发达国家经验,积极引入国际优质教育资源,创办国际化的创业教育体系。
  针对发展中外合作创业教育、培育创业型国际人才,中国与全球化智库建议从如下三方面入手:一是鼓励高校与国际名校合办创业教育课程和项目。二是创办中外合资创业大学。三是中外联合培养更多创业教育教师人才。
  中国全国合法留学机构数量有所下降,留学中介市场分散,缺乏引领型企业
  伴随着改革开放的持续推进和中国留学市场的发展,留学中介机构的数量实现了快速的增长,中国的留学中介机构已能充分满足留学发展需要。随着监管的加强和机构自律意识的提高,中国的留学中介行业逐步走向完善,但其在地区分布、服务收费以及满足日益个性化的留学需求等方面还有不少提升空间,主要表现在以下几个方面:一是留学中介机构地区分布不均,东、中、西部差异显著;二是中国全国合法留学机构数量有所下降;三是留学中介市场分散,缺乏引领型企业。
  作者:中国与全球化智库(CCG)主任王辉耀


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